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Ampicillin is active against gram-positive (alpha and beta-hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium spp., Most enterococci, including Enterococcus faecalis, and Neem-negative (Haemophiliss prussitrie merizaidae meninga, influenza Pasteurella multocida many species of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli) microorganisms, aerobic non-spore forming bacteria (Listeria spp.).
Bacterial infections caused by sensitive microflora:
- respiratory tract and ENT organs (sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia, lung abscess);
- kidney and urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis, pyelitis, cystitis, urethritis;
- infections of the biliary system ( cholangitis, cholecystitis), gonorrhea, chlamydial infections in pregnant women (with erythromycin intolerance);
- cervicitis, infections of the skin and soft tissues: erysipelas, impetigo, secondarily infected dermatoses;
- musculoskeletal infections;
- infections of the gastrointestinal tract (typhoid and paratyphoid fever, dysentery, salmonellosis, salmonella carriage, peritonitis).
Infections of the gastrointestinal tract and organs of the genitourinary system: 0.5 g 4 times a day.
Gonococcal urethritis – 3.5 g once.
A mild infection in children, it is preferable to use a suspension.
Children over 4 years old are prescribed 1-2 g per day. The daily dose is divided into 4-6 doses.
The duration of therapy depends on the condition severity (from 5-10 days to 2-3 weeks, in chronic processes – for several months).
- hypersensitivity (including to other penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems);
- infectious mononucleosis;
- lymphocytic leukemia;
- liver failure;
- a history of gastrointestinal tract diseases (especially colitis associated with the use of antibiotics);
- children (up to 4 years).
Take this antibiotic with caution in the following cases:
- bronchial asthma;
- hay fever;
- allergic diseases;
- renal failure;
- a history of bleeding;
- Allergic reactions: possible – skin peeling, itching, urticaria, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, Quincke’s edema; rarely – fever, arthralgia, eosinophilia, erythematous and maculopapular rash, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, reactions similar to serum sickness, in isolated cases – anaphylactic shock.
- Digestive system: dysbiosis, stomatitis, gastritis, dry mouth, taste change, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, stomatitis, glossitis, impaired liver function, a moderate increase in hepatic transaminases, pseudomembranous enterocolitis.
- Central nervous system: agitation or aggressiveness, anxiety, confusion, behavior change, depression, convulsions (with high-dose therapy).
- Laboratory indicators: leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, anemia.
- Other: interstitial nephritis, nephropathy, superinfection (especially in patients with chronic diseases or reduced body resistance), vaginal candidiasis.
- Antacids, glucosamine, laxatives, food slow down and reduce absorption; ascorbic acid increases absorption.
- Bactericidal antibiotics (including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, cycloserine, vancomycin, rifampicin) – synergistic effect; bacteriostatic drugs (macrolides, chloramphenicol, lincosamides, tetracyclines, sulfonamides) – antagonistic.
- Ampicillin increases the effectiveness of indirect anticoagulants (suppressing the intestinal microflora, reduces the synthesis of vitamin K and the prothrombin index).
- It reduces the effectiveness of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (additional contraceptive methods must be used), drugs that metabolize para-amino-benzoic acid, ethinyl estradiol.
- Diuretics, allopurinol, oxyphenbutazone, phenylbutazone, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; drugs that block tubular secretion increase the concentration (due to a decrease in tubular secretion).
- Allopurinol increases the risk of developing a skin rash.
- Ampicillin reduces clearance and increases the toxicity of methotrexate and enhances digoxin absorption.