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Allopurinol – A Comprehensive Guide to Arthritis Medication, Mechanism of Action, and Safety Precautions


Allopurinol (Allopurinol)

Dosage: 300mg

$0,61 per pill

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General Description of Allopurinol

Allopurinol is a medication commonly prescribed for the treatment of gout and certain types of kidney stones. It belongs to a class of medications known as xanthine oxidase inhibitors, which work by reducing the production of uric acid in the body.

Uric acid is a waste product that is normally excreted through the urine. However, in some individuals, high levels of uric acid can build up in the bloodstream, leading to conditions like gout and kidney stones. Allopurinol helps to lower uric acid levels, thus preventing the formation of crystals that cause pain and inflammation.

Allopurinol is typically taken orally in the form of tablets and is usually well-tolerated by most patients. Common side effects may include skin rash, nausea, and liver function abnormalities. It is important to follow the prescribed dosage and consult with a healthcare provider before starting treatment with allopurinol.

For more information on Allopurinol, you can refer to the website.

Comparing Allopurinol with other arthritis medications

When considering treatment options for arthritis, there are several medications available in addition to Allopurinol. It is essential to compare Allopurinol with other drugs to determine the most suitable choice for each individual’s specific condition.

1. Allopurinol vs. NSAIDs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to reduce pain and inflammation in arthritis. While NSAIDs can provide symptomatic relief, they do not address the underlying cause of arthritis. In contrast, Allopurinol works by reducing the production of uric acid in the body, which can help prevent flare-ups of gout.

2. Allopurinol vs. Colchicine

Colchicine is another medication used to treat gout by reducing inflammation and pain. However, colchicine may have more side effects compared to Allopurinol, such as gastrointestinal issues. Allopurinol, on the other hand, is generally well-tolerated but may require regular monitoring of liver and kidney function.

3. Allopurinol vs. Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids are powerful anti-inflammatory medications that can provide rapid relief of arthritis symptoms. However, they are generally used for short periods due to their potential side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, and increased risk of infections. Allopurinol, as a long-term treatment, may be a safer option for managing chronic arthritis.

4. Allopurinol vs. Biologic DMARDs

Biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are a class of medications that target specific components of the immune system to reduce inflammation in arthritis. While biologics can be highly effective, they are expensive and may increase the risk of infections. Allopurinol, as a more cost-effective alternative, could be considered for individuals who do not respond to or cannot afford biologics.

Overall, the choice between Allopurinol and other arthritis medications depends on various factors, including the type of arthritis, individual health conditions, and treatment goals. Consulting with a healthcare provider is crucial to determine the most appropriate treatment plan.

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Allopurinol (Allopurinol)

Dosage: 300mg

$0,61 per pill

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Mechanism of Action of Allopurinol

Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that works by reducing the production of uric acid in the body. Uric acid is a waste product formed when the body breaks down purines, which are substances found in some foods and drinks. High levels of uric acid can lead to gout or kidney stones.

When allopurinol is taken, it inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which is responsible for the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. By blocking this enzyme, allopurinol reduces the production of uric acid, thereby lowering the levels of uric acid in the blood and urine.

This mechanism of action helps prevent the formation of uric acid crystals in the joints, which can cause inflammation and pain in conditions like gout. By lowering uric acid levels, allopurinol can also help prevent the formation of kidney stones due to uric acid build-up.

Studies have shown that allopurinol is effective in reducing uric acid levels and preventing gout attacks. According to a clinical trial published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, allopurinol was found to be more effective in lowering uric acid levels compared to placebo.

It is important to note that allopurinol should be taken as prescribed by a healthcare provider to ensure its proper effectiveness and safety. Common side effects of allopurinol include rash, nausea, and liver problems. Patients should be monitored for any signs of serious side effects while taking allopurinol.

Overall, the mechanism of action of allopurinol makes it a valuable medication for the management of conditions related to high uric acid levels, such as gout and kidney stones.

For more information on the mechanism of action of allopurinol, you can visit the National Library of Medicine website.

Brief History of Allopurinol

Allopurinol, a medication commonly used to treat gout and other conditions associated with high levels of uric acid in the body, has an interesting history. It was first synthesized by Roland K. Robins and George H. Hitchings in the late 1950s while working at the Wellcome Research Laboratories in the United Kingdom. The development of Allopurinol was a significant breakthrough in the field of medicine as it provided an effective treatment for conditions related to hyperuricemia.

Allopurinol was first introduced for medical use in the early 1960s and quickly gained popularity for its efficacy in reducing the production of uric acid in the body. The drug works by inhibiting xanthine oxidase, an enzyme responsible for converting hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. By blocking this enzyme, Allopurinol helps lower uric acid levels in the blood and prevents the formation of urate crystals that can cause gout attacks and kidney stones.

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Over the years, Allopurinol has become a cornerstone in the management of gout and other conditions associated with hyperuricemia. It is considered a safe and well-tolerated medication when used as directed by healthcare providers. Despite the availability of newer medications for gout treatment, Allopurinol remains a widely prescribed drug due to its effectiveness and affordability.

Several clinical studies and trials have demonstrated the benefits of Allopurinol in reducing gout flares, lowering uric acid levels, and improving overall quality of life for patients with gout. The drug has also been found to have renal protective effects in individuals with chronic kidney disease and high uric acid levels.

Overall, the history of Allopurinol highlights its importance in the field of rheumatology and the treatment of hyperuricemia-related conditions. With its proven efficacy and safety profile, Allopurinol continues to be a valuable medication for patients suffering from gout and other disorders associated with elevated uric acid levels.

Different Arthritis Drugs on the Market

There are several arthritis drugs available on the market today, each with its benefits and potential side effects. It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any medication regimen. Here is a list of some commonly prescribed arthritis drugs:

1. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

2. Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs)

3. Corticosteroids

These are just a few of the many arthritis drugs available on the market. Each medication works differently to help manage arthritis symptoms and improve quality of life for patients. It is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the best treatment plan for individual needs.


Allopurinol (Allopurinol)

Dosage: 300mg

$0,61 per pill

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Allopurinol with Benzbromarone combination

One of the newer approaches to treating arthritis involves the use of a combination of Allopurinol and Benzbromarone. This combination therapy has shown promising results in managing the symptoms of arthritis, especially in cases where traditional treatments have not been effective. Let’s delve deeper into the benefits of this combination:

Benefits of Allopurinol with Benzbromarone

  • Improved Uric Acid Control: By combining Allopurinol, which inhibits the production of uric acid, with Benzbromarone, a uricosuric agent that enhances uric acid excretion, patients experience better control over their uric acid levels.
  • Reduced Arthritis Symptoms: Studies have shown that the combination of these two drugs can lead to a significant reduction in arthritis symptoms such as pain, swelling, and joint stiffness.
  • Prevention of Gout Attacks: The dual action of Allopurinol and Benzbromarone helps prevent gout attacks by lowering uric acid levels in the body.

According to a recent study published in the Journal of Arthritis Research & Therapy, the Allopurinol and Benzbromarone combination therapy was found to be more effective in reducing arthritis symptoms compared to conventional treatments.

Side Effects and Precautions

While the combination of Allopurinol and Benzbromarone has shown promising results, it is essential to be aware of potential side effects and precautions. Common side effects may include gastrointestinal discomfort, skin rashes, and liver abnormalities. Patients with kidney or liver problems should consult their healthcare provider before starting this therapy.

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The Allopurinol and Benzbromarone combination therapy represents a new and effective approach to managing arthritis symptoms, especially for patients who have not responded well to traditional treatments. By working synergistically to control uric acid levels and reduce inflammation, this combination offers a promising solution for individuals suffering from arthritis.


Allopurinol Safety and Precautions

Safety Profile

Allopurinol is generally well-tolerated by most patients; however, like any medication, it may cause side effects in some individuals. Common side effects of Allopurinol include gastrointestinal issues such as nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. In rare cases, severe allergic reactions like skin rash, itching, or swelling may occur. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately if any serious side effects manifest.


  • Renal Impairment: Patients with kidney problems should exercise caution when taking Allopurinol, as the drug is primarily eliminated through the kidneys. Dose adjustments may be necessary based on renal function.
  • Liver Function: Allopurinol can affect liver enzymes, so individuals with liver issues should be closely monitored while on this medication.
  • Hypersensitivity: Individuals with known hypersensitivity to Allopurinol or related medications should avoid its use to prevent severe allergic reactions.

Special Populations

In pregnant or breastfeeding women, the use of Allopurinol is generally not recommended unless the benefits outweigh the risks. It is crucial to consult a healthcare provider before starting Allopurinol in these populations.

Drug Interactions

Allopurinol may interact with certain medications, such as azathioprine or mercaptopurine, leading to increased levels of these drugs in the body. Patients should inform their healthcare provider about all medications, including over-the-counter and herbal supplements, before starting Allopurinol.


Regular monitoring of renal function, liver enzymes, and blood counts is essential while on Allopurinol therapy to ensure safety and efficacy. Healthcare providers may adjust the dose based on these parameters to optimize treatment outcomes.

According to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Allopurinol has been shown to effectively reduce serum uric acid levels in patients with gout, leading to decreased gout flares and improved quality of life. Another study in the Arthritis Foundation reported that long-term use of Allopurinol is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events in patients with gout.



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